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    當代文學“經典化”:文藝批評的一個重要面向

    時間:2016/3/28 12:01:05 點擊:

    【光明日報·國家社科基金】

    什么是經典?就人類文學史而言,“經典”既是一個約定俗成的概念,指人類歷史上那些杰出、偉大、震撼人心的文學作品,又是一個無法精確檢測和證明的修辭性概念,因為在不同的人看來,所謂“杰出”“偉大”“震撼人心”等等詞匯也各有含義。應該說,經典既有客觀性、絕對性的一面,也有主觀性、相對性的一面,經典的標準不是僵化、固定的,政治、思想、文化、歷史、藝術、美學等等因素都可能在某種特殊的歷史條件下成為命名經典的原因或標準。但我們看到,當今人們面對當代文學經典問題時,有意消解的就是它的主觀性和相對性,從而形成了以經典的名義反經典的現象,并給中國當代文學評價造成了極大困惑與困難。

    在此,我們看到一個非常有趣的悖論:當談論經典作家和文學大師時,我們總是仰視而崇拜,對他們的局限要么視而不見要么寬容原諒;當我們談論身邊作家和身邊作品時,我們總是專注于其弱點和局限,反而對優點視而不見。問題還不在于這種姿態本身的厚此薄彼與倫理偏見,而是其背后所蘊含的“當代虛無主義”。這種“虛無主義”的最大后果就是對當代作家作品“經典化”的阻滯,對當代文學經典化歷程的拖延。一方面,我們視當下作家作品為“無物”,拒絕對其進行“經典化”的工作;另一方面,又以早就完全“經典化”了的大師和經典來作為貶低當下泥沙俱下的文學現實的依據。這種不在同一層面上的比較,只能使文學評價的不公正以及各種偏激的怪論愈演愈烈。

    當代文學“經典化”:文藝批評的一個重要面向


    其實,說中國當代文學如何不堪或如何優秀都沒有說服力,關鍵是要進行“經典化”的工作。對當代文學的“經典化”不是對過往經典、大師的否定,也不是給當代文學唱贊歌,而是要建立一個既立足文學史又與時俱進并與當代文學發展同步的認識評價體系和篩選體系。當然,“經典化”問題是個非常復雜的問題,不能僅憑熱情和沖動一蹴而就,但我們至少應該完成認識論上的轉變并真正啟動這樣一個“過程”。

    中國當代文學究竟有沒有經典?中國當代作家中有沒有大師?很多人認為,經典是過去時,與當代無關,因為當代作品沒有經過時間的考驗,當代人與當代作家作品之間也沒有必要的審視距離。這種錯覺直接導致了在經典問題上的厚古薄今。現在媒體上流行一些觀點,認為中國當代文學“經典化”是一個實實在在的“偽命題”。其實,對于文學,每個人有不同的判斷和理解很正常,但筆者認為,上述觀點存在對經典和“經典化”的雙重誤解,因而具有嚴重的誤導性和危害性。

    首先,就經典而言,否定中國當代文學和對當代文學的虛無主義態度,單從學理層面看,就已陷入三大誤區:

    第一個誤區,是對經典神圣化和神秘化的誤區。很多人認為文學經典就是一個烏托邦化的、十全十美的、所有人都喜歡的東西。這其實是為了阻隔當代文學和經典這個詞發生關系。應該明確,人類文學史上似乎也并不存在這樣的經典。對每個時代來說,經典并不是高不可攀的神圣神秘的存在,而是那些比較優秀、能被比較多的人喜愛的作品而已。從這個意義上說,當今中國文壇談論經典時的烏托邦姿態,不過是遮蔽和否定當代文學的一種不自覺的方式。

    第二個誤區,是經典會自動呈現的誤區。有人說,是金子總會發光的。但文學經典的產生有其特殊性,它不是一個“標簽”,一定是通過閱讀才會產生意義和價值,也只有在閱讀的意義上才能實現價值。經典的價值本身也不是固定不變的,不同的時代、面對不同的讀者會呈現出完全不同的價值,這也是所謂文學永恒性的來源。所以說,經典不會自動呈現,一定要在讀者的閱讀或者闡釋、評價中才會呈現其價值。

    第三個誤區,是經典命名權的誤區。很多人把經典的命名視為一種特殊權力。這有兩個層次的問題:一是現代人還是后代人具有命名權;二是權威還是普通人具有命名權。說一個時代的作品是經典,是當代人還是后代人說了算?某種意義上,時間確會消除文學的很多污染,讓我們更清楚地看清真相,但時間也會使文學的現場感和鮮活性受到磨損與侵蝕。此外,如果把一切交給時間,還有個前提,就是對后代的讀者有足夠的信任,相信他們能完成對我們這個時代文學的經典化使命。但幻想后人用考古的方式對我們這個時代的文學進行經典命名,并不現實。一部被后代命名為經典的作品,在它所處的時代也一定會是被認可為經典的作品,而在當代默默無聞的作品很難會被后代“考古”挖掘為經典。此外,在經典命名的問題上,還有個當代作家究竟為誰寫作的問題。當代作家是為同代人還是后代人寫作?幻想同代人不閱讀、不接受的作品后代人會接受,這本身就是非常烏托邦的。更何況,當代作家所表現的經驗以及對世界的認識,當代人更能理解并產生共鳴。從這個角度說,當代人對一個時代經典的命名顯然比后代人更重要。第二個層面,就是普通人、普通讀者和權威的關系。在這個問題上,我們要追求文學經典評價的民主化。對一個時代文學的判斷應該是各種文學聲音都應該能夠有效地發出。當所有的作品都被閱讀過、所有的聲音都能發出來的情況下,各種聲音碰撞、妥協、對話,會形成對這個時代文學比較客觀、科學的判斷。作為文學研究者或文學出版者,參與當代文學的進程,參與當代文學經典的篩選、淘洗和確立過程,更是一種義不容辭的責任和使命。說到底,經典是主觀的,經典的確立是一個持續不斷的“過程”。經典的價值是逐步呈現的,對于一部經典作品來說,它的當代認可、當代評價是不可或缺的,否則,就無法從浩如煙海的文本世界中突圍出來,就可能永久地被埋沒。

    其次,就“經典化”而言,前述觀點同樣存在著嚴重的學理缺陷,體現了對“經典化”本身的誤解。“經典化”不是簡單地呈現一種結果或對一個時代的文學作品排座次,而是要進入一個發現文學價值、感受文學價值、呈現文學價值的過程。所謂“經典化”的“化”,實際上就是文學價值影響人的精神生活的過程,就是通過文學閱讀發現和呈現文學價值的過程。可以說,文學“經典化”過程,既是一個歷史化的過程,又是一個當代化的過程。文學的“經典化”時時刻刻都在進行著,它需要當代人的積極參與和實踐。從這個意義上說,當代文學的“經典化”當然是一個真命題而非偽命題。

    (吳義勤 作者為國家社科基金項目“中國新時期文學經典化問題研究”負責人、中國現代文學館館長)當代文學“經典化”:文藝批評的一個重要面向


    作者:吳義勤 來源:光明網
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