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    “回歸”古典批評的思路與方法

    時間:2016/9/1 11:25:30 點擊:

        討論中國古典批評方式的“回歸”,仍然不可避免地要和“中國古代文論的現代轉換問題”相遇。20世紀90年代初,有感于中國文論在世界理論界的失語,有學者倡導“中國古代文論的現代轉換”,希望借此完成中西文論的匯通并建構文論的中國話語。遺憾的是,圍繞這一構想的種種討論雖已持續二十余年,卻仍然收效甚微,并未能深度改變當代批評以西方文論為基本評價視域的普遍狀況。究其原因,與一些問題的懸而未決密切相關。

        有觀點將現當代文學視為在古代文學外別開一路,其中歷史原因較為復雜 。自晚清至“五四”,中國社會與文化面臨“三千年未有之大變局”。值國家民族貞元之會、絕續之交,知識人援引西學以療救社會文化之弊,成為一時之盛,也自有其歷史合理性。由此形成的今勝于古、西優于中的思維模式,深度影響著國人的學問體系、概念術語及知識類型。以此為基礎建構的文化及文學史觀,將中國古典傳統視為需要克服的對象,并以追求“現代性”為旨歸。以此思路梳理現當代文學,不可避免地存在著以現代意識遮蔽甚至壓抑傳統精神的問題。各家文學史在廢名、汪曾祺、孫犁等作家評價上的“限度”,已充分說明此種史觀的局限所在。對此,汪曾祺就撰文建議治中國現當代文學的學者,不妨多讀些古代典籍,以古今貫通的思路,來理解當代作家作品。其實已經有打通文學史的意思。但受制于文學史觀的局限,此說并未引起學界的充分關注。

        自《廢都》迄今,論者在賈平凹作品評價上的分歧,多半與“古”“今”分裂的文學史觀有關。早在20世紀80年代初,賈平凹即努力“以中國傳統的美的表現方法,真實地表達現代中國人的生活和情緒”。其在《浮躁》序言中申明超越奠基于西方理性主義思想的“現實主義”局限的獨特用心,并嘗試以中國古典傳統為資源醞釀“中年變法”之作《廢都》。此后多年間,賈平凹由接續明清世情小說傳統到宗法兩漢史家筆法,在思想方式、精神品格、美學追求上均努力接續中國古典文脈。遺憾的是,諸家文學史并未能對賈平凹接續古典文脈的努力有妥帖的文學史定位,亦無法深度理解其創作之于古典文脈當代賡續的價值與意義。同樣,汪曾祺、孫犁文章的好處,也在其氣脈,并不局限于“五四”一途,而有古典心性與韻致的獨特闡發。汪曾祺、孫犁、賈平凹的作品,可視為中國古典文脈的當代形態,如不能以大文學史觀之,則難免錯會其用心而有偏頗的評價。

        時隔近一個世紀之后,總體文化語境已經發生根本性的變化。“五四”一代人曾面臨的文化困境已不復存在,反思其文化選擇之“弊”可謂恰逢其時,也是當代人不可回避的歷史責任。而以古今貫通的思維理解中國古代文學與現當代文學的關系,建構一種“大文學史觀”,不僅可以豐富中國文學的史性敘述,也是中國文化“歸根復命”題中應有之義。

        “大文學史觀”的建構,首要目的在于突破既定文學史觀念的局限,以更為宏闊的視域,重新梳理自先秦迄今的中國文學史。此種文學史觀念的調整,必然以文學史評價視域的轉換為基礎。而暫時“懸置”文學評價的現代視域,以重新激活中國古代文論的解釋學效力,為第一要務,亦是建構文論的中國話語的先決條件。

        與文學史觀的“厚今薄古”相對應的,是文學評價視域的“西優于中”。自“五四”以降,中國文學理論現代轉型的結果,便是以西方文論話語為核心塑造了中國文論的現代形態。由于百年間師法西方文學傳統為文學創作之主潮,亦是文學史敘述的主流,故而,以國民性、階級、典型、主體、結構等概念、術語、范疇為核心的現代文論,在對現當代文本的解釋效力上,的確優于以道、氣、神韻、境界、風骨、滋味等概念、術語為基礎的古代文論。這是“古代文論現代轉換”所面臨的重要難題。如不能從根本意義上解決古代文論對現當代文本的解釋效力問題,則任何“轉換”的努力均將無功而返。

        因此,以貫通古今、融匯中西的“大文學史觀”重新梳理文學史系,給予古典文脈現代賡續的作家作品應有的文學史地位,是重申“古代文論現代轉換”問題的先決條件,也是解決古代文論解釋效力的必由之路。即以廢名論,因彼時難以歸入“五四”文學主潮之中,廢名便難于獲得文學史的妥帖定位。雖有周作人稱贊其文筆簡練,多含蓄的古典趣味,文章之美,在現代中國小說界自有其價值。但廢名的文學史評價,與其貢獻并不相符。汪曾祺說,廢名的作品目的并不在講故事,而是寫意境。如以現代文論的概念術語解釋,似乎難于領會廢名的真正用心處。但重啟境界、虛實、意境、趣味等古代文論的概念術語,其作品的好處,自不難說明。同理,以經過創造性轉換的古代文論的概念術語解讀汪曾祺、孫犁、賈平凹等作家作品,較之現代文論,更具解釋效力。

        以現代文論難以對廢名、汪曾祺、賈平凹等作家作品作出準確評價。其作品“逸出”現代文論框架的特征,恰是其承續古典文脈的要義所在。而如果以古今貫通的視域重新觀照以上作品,則不難發現其真正的價值與意義所在。但僅僅“重啟”中國古典詩學的概念術語,未必能夠有效完成對當代文本的恰切釋讀,還需要從思想方式上,走出現代文論所依托的西方思想的既定視域。

        不同于西方的線性史觀,中國古典思想以“循環往復”的方式理解宇宙的變化以及人的生活世界的轉換。因此,《紅樓夢》《帶燈》中的世界并不至于“一頹到底”,頹到極處時,必有新氣象的發生,而另一個循環由此開始。此種思維,與《周易》系統的運行規則密不可分,也是中國古代世界想象的基本模式。如以西方線性時間觀觀照此種思想,必然難得其要旨。所以說,以中國思想中國美學精神為核心,在吸納西方思想及文論經驗的基礎上建構文論的中國話語,是理論界走出離開西方話語“不能思乃至無思的無能境地”的必由之路。

        中國文論現代轉型的結果之一,便是以千篇一律的論說體取代古典批評極具詩性和文學性的多樣話語方式。文學批評“職業化”的標志,即是其與“文學”表達體式的分離。以理論切入文本,逐漸取代以個人體悟為核心的詩話及評點式批評。極重文體的古典批評,開始向千人一面的現代批評轉換,隨之消退的不僅是表達方式的單向度,更為重要的是體驗世界的平面化和同質化。以某種理論觀照作品,取其一端不及其余,甚至以之為基礎“黨同伐異”。文學文本逐漸成為各種西方理論的跑馬場,成為證明該理論恰切性甚至合法性的基礎材料。文本所蘊含的作家對于世界的復雜感受被遮蔽和壓抑。新時期以來,一當對此種批評產生“不滿”,“重啟”中國古典感悟式、印象式批評即被一再提及。但總體性的文化及批評語境的變化,已經使古典批評的回歸變得分外困難。如前所述,無法重返古典批評所依憑之思想,是困難之一。而不大注重文學批評的文體,亦不容忽視。

        文體雖表現為一種風格獨具的話語與修辭,但其背后卻是個人對于生活世界的感悟,以一定的世界觀念和思想為核心。如孫郁所論,作為文體家的小說家“大概是注重詞語之間的連帶關系,表達時濃淡相宜,比如留白,比如藏墨與藏拙”,且“會控制文章的起承轉合”。一言以蔽之,是注重文章之美。而文章的好壞,不在詞匯的華貴,而在氣韻的貫通,是“人的境界的外化”。也就是說,有何樣之人格,便有與之相應的文章體式。文體的差異,不在話語與修辭,而在個人境界的分野。在古代,《道德經》《莊子》及《詩品》《二十四詩品》的文章之美,自不待言,將其作為文學作品來讀,亦無不可。其作者雖為思想家或“評論家”,但對于天人宇宙的感應,對文章之美的獨特用心和把握,與文學家并無不同。其所師承或開啟之文章流脈,亦不限于“理論”一途。在現代,李長之、李健吾的批評最受推崇,理由亦與此同。當代此一風氣漸消。批評文章可以作文學作品來讀的,不過數人而已。

        李長之、李健吾之所以能寫得一手好的批評文章,除與古為徒,深得古典文章運思用筆之妙外,其語言有古詩文的底子,亦十分重要。多年前,詩人鄭敏曾撰文論及現代詩的語言問題,以為隔絕于古漢語,是現代詩難有大的突破的原因之一。而今文學批評的語言問題,較之“五四”時期,要更為突出。因是之故,在語言上打通古今,接續古漢語的詩性和魅力,也是文學批評回歸古典的途徑之一,理應引起足夠的重視。

        (作者為陜西師范大學文學院副教授,原載《光明日報》2016年8月29日13版


    作者:楊輝 來源:光明日報
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